21. Vatican I and II: Roman Catholicism and Modernity

VATICAN I: Origins Three centuries separated the council of Trent (1563) and the twentieth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church known as Vatican I (1869). Vatican I was a response to a series of perceived threats to Roman Catholic influence and power in Europe. In the years following the Reformation Catholic states were by and large more problematic to deal with that Protestant ones. Catholic France’s interference and practical subjugation of the papacy in the 17th century climaxed under Louis XIV when he effectively took over the French church in 1682. Louis declared that the French monarch had power to determine which papal pronouncements were valid for the French Church (Kelly, 147).

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